Your Personal Injury Lawyers
Call 1-888-404-5167
Preszler Injury Lawyers

How Ontario Limits Pain and Suffering Damages in a Car Accident

Car accident victims in Ontario face an uphill struggle when it comes to seeking damages from a negligent driver. First, the victim has to collect evidence and present it in a tort claim in court to prove the negligent driver is liable. Then, even after the other driver’s fault has been established, Ontario limits pain and suffering damages (also known as non-pecuniary damages) with its “verbal threshold” and statutory deductible.

The verbal threshold is satisfied only if the victim dies, suffers “permanent serious disfigurement,” or sustains a “permanent serious impairment of an important physical, mental or psychological function.” If a judge doesn’t think a victim’s injuries meet that standard, the victim can’t recover non-pecuniary damages.

But even if the verbal threshold is met, the statutory deductible often significantly limits pain and suffering damage awards.

Rodrigues v. Purtill: Addressing Psychological Injuries Following a Tragic Drunk-Driving Crash

Recently, an Ontario drunk driver ran a red-light at an intersection and collided with another vehicle, killing one passenger and seriously injuring the others.

There was no dispute as to the defendant’s liability. The only question for the Superior Court to decide was the amount of the victims’ damages. The case was tried before Justice P.B. Hockin of the Superior Court.

Most of Justice Hockin’s reasons addressed the claims of the driver of the victims’ car (whom we will identify here as “the plaintiff” for the sake of clarity). The plaintiff was transporting herself, her husband, and their three children in the City of Woodstock. As noted above, while she was going through an intersection with a green light, the defendant who was intoxicated at the time ran a red light and collided with her car.

The collision killed one of the plaintiff’s children and seriously injured the plaintiff and the other surviving family members.

The plaintiff presented evidence of her physical and psychological injuries arising from the accident. Her physical injuries included neck, back, and leg pain. The psychological injuries largely revolved around the death of her son in the accident. He was just five months old at the time, and as one would expect, the mother testified that she has experienced significant anguish and grief.

Non-Pecuniary Injuries and the Statutory Threshold

Two psychiatrists examined the plaintiff, one hired by her and the other by the defence. As you might expect, the defence expert said that while the plaintiff “continues to experience a natural albeit longstanding grief reaction arising from the death of her son,” her mental injury “does not meet the threshold” required by Ontario law.

The plaintiff’s expert disagreed, stating she clearly suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, which constituted a “permanent and serious impairment of an important mental or psychological function.”

Justice Hockin ultimately found the plaintiff’s expert more persuasive. He held the plaintiff established she “sustained a permanent serious impairment.” Separately, the court found that the plaintiff also sustained a serious physical impairment, noting that it is more than 10 years since the accident and she continues to suffer from lower back pain.

Deductible Limits Pain and Suffering & Family Law Act Damages

Justice Hockin awarded the plaintiff $145,000 in non-pecuniary damages. Because this exceeded the deductible threshold, she was entitled to the full amount. In addition, the plaintiff received more than $300,000 in damages for her past and future loss of income.

Finally, the court awarded $130,000 in damages under the Ontario Family Law Act. This statute provides for compensation to family members of a person killed by the negligence of another (called a wrongful death). Depending on when the accident happened and the amount of damages, the Family Law Act may also impose a deductible. Since this accident pre-dated statutory changes that were made in September 2010, deductibles were applied.

In this case, the plaintiff was entitled to compensation for the death of her infant son. Altogether, the Court awarded the plaintiff $583,500 in damages.

The other family members also received damages, although some of their awards were subject to the deductibles. For example, the two surviving children were each initially awarded $65,000 in non-pecuniary damages, but that was reduced to $27,000 each. The husband and children also received damages related to the plaintiff’s injuries. In total, they received $244,000 in damages after a combined $171,000 in statutory deductibles.


It is terrible enough to lose a child or family member in a car accident. And as you can see, Ontario law does not make things easier for the survivors. Victims need to jump through a number of legal hoops just to receive some measure of compensation for their incalculable loss.

To discuss your case with our Ontario wrongful death lawyers, call 1-800-JUSTICE and schedule your free initial consultation today.

Call us now at

151 Eglinton Ave W,
Toronto, ON
M4R 1A6
Fax: 1-855-364-7027
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
4145 N Service Rd
Burlington, ON
L7L 4X6
Fax: 1-855-364-7027
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
2 County Ct Blvd #400,
Brampton, ON
L6W 3W8
Fax: 1-855-364-7027
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
105 Consumers Drive
Whitby, ON
L1N 1C4
Fax: 1-855-364-7027
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
92 Caplan Ave #121,
Barrie, ON
L4N 0Z7
Fax: 1-855-364-7027
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
380 Wellington St Tower B, 6th Floor,
London, ON
N6A 5B5
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
2233 Argentia Rd Suite 302,
East Tower Mississauga, ON
L5N 6A6
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
1 Hunter St E,
Hamilton, ON
L8N 3W1
Fax: 1-855-364-7027
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
459 George St N,
Peterborough, ON
K9H 3R9
Fax: 1-855-364-7027
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
22 Frederick Street,
Suite 700
Kitchener, ON N2H 6M6
Fax: 1-855-364-7027
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
116 Lisgar Street, Suite 300
Ottawa ON
K2P 0C2
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
10 Milner Business Ct #300,
Scarborough, ON
M1B 3C6
Toll Free: 1-888-608-2111
*consultation offices

DISCLAIMER: Please be advised that the header image and other images throughout this website may include both lawyer and non-lawyer/paralegal employees of Preszler Injury Lawyers and DPJP Professional Corporation and unrelated third parties. Our spokesperson John Fraser, or any other non-lawyer/paralegals in our marketing is not to be construed in any way as misleading to the public. Our marketing efforts are not intended to suggest qualitative superiority to other lawyers, paralegals or law firms in any way. Any questions regarding the usage of non-lawyers in our legal marketing or otherwise can be directed to our management team. Please also note that past results are not indicative of future results and that each case is unique and that case results listed on site are from experiences across Canada and are not specific to any province. Please be advised that some of the content on this website may be out of date. None of the content is intended to act as legal advice as each situation is independent and unique and requires individual legal advice from a licensed lawyer or paralegal. For legal advice on your individual situation – we can provide legal guidance after you have contacted our firm and we have established a lawyer-client relationship contractually. Maximum contingency fee charged is 33%. Finally, our usage of awards and logos for awards does not suggest qualitative superiority to other lawyers, paralegals or law firms. All awards received from third party organizations have been done so through their own reasonable evaluative process and do not include any payment for these awards except for the use of the award logos for our marketing assets. We are also proud to service additional provinces like Alberta, British Columbia and Nova Scotia.